|Abstract: ||一九八０年代的世界局勢變動主要是一股席捲全球的民主化潮流。拉丁美洲國家產生了前所未有的民主化運動,約有十四個國家由威權體制轉變成民主多元的體制。面對這種強烈對比的狀況,我們不禁要進一步探討:這波民主化浪潮的主導因素究竟為何?是否杭廷頓之說法的確具有普遍性的意義。本計畫之目的即企圖解釋並深入探究此一問題,希望對政治民主化這個議題,找出真正具有說服力之合理詮釋。 由於拉丁美洲國家為數眾多,各國之發展狀況儘管類似,但仍有其特殊的社會經驗;為求在深入探索的過程中能真正有所收穫,所以在此先以傳統上一黨獨大之墨西哥作為研究範圍,以進行進一步的比較研究。 墨西哥擁有「一黨獨大」的政治體制,長期執政的革命建制黨在民主轉型期當中,面對黨內外強大的政治壓力,出現了左支右絀之窘況。除了政治上的無盡挑戰外,墨國追求經濟自由化的努力也遭到重大的挫折,而加入北美自由貿易區(NAFTA)及經濟合作暨發展組織(OECD)的喜悅也極為短暫,至於一九九四年十二月底的金融危機迄今仍是揮之不去的陰影;這經濟因素對墨西哥的民主化均帶來強力衝擊。無論如何,墨國的民主化進程並未因此中斷,相反地,墨西哥執政者仍努力引領該國進行更大幅度的政治改革。究竟是何力量支？其民主化的進行?未來發展如何?這些都值得加以詳細觀察與設法瞭解。|
In the 1980s, a strong current of democratization become the political mainstream of the international society and produced influence on the political development of the Third World. There was no exception for the Latin American nations and the dynamic of democratization did bring about an unprecedented movement of political changest here---with more than 14 nations becoming democratized during the period. Facing the changing circumstances, an important question was emerging in the academic study. In this research, I am going to address this question, finding out a more feasible explanation of it. Among these Latin American nations, I am going to study the case of Mexico and its political development since 1970s. My main purpose is to understand what factors behind her democratization movement and whether this case fits in the Latin American Pattern of democratization or not. In another reason why I choose Mexico is that her political structure similar to Taiwan, i.e. one-party dominant system. The ruling party, Institutional Revolutionary Party, has governed Mexico ever since when it founded in 1928. Before the 1960s, Mexico's political structure was regarded as a kind of western-style one. But, later on, it was classified, by the scholars of democratization, as a kind of authoritarian political structure. The problem of political development-democratization-then become the focus of study. I hope that the results of the research will provide certain reference for the government of Taiwan in its process of political democratization.